The broader areas of Samagra Shiksha are: (i) Elementary Education (ii) Secondary Education and (iii) Teacher Education. In order to achieve the cherished goal of Samagra Shiksha in the backdrop of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) and National Education Policy 2020, following major components are envisaged under the framework of Samagra Shiksha :
- Universal Access including infrastructure Development & Retention
- Gender & Equity (Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV))
- Inclusive Education
- Quality & Innovative Interventions including Assessment, Research & Evaluation
- Digital Initiatives ( Use of Information Technology in Schools)
- RTE Entitlement
- Pre School Education
- Vocational Education
- Sports & Physical Education
- Strengthening of Teacher & Training
- Programme Management & Project Monitoring
Universal Access Including Infrastructure Development & Retention
Samagra Shiksha covers all children from age 4 to 18 years across all level of school education from pre primary to senior secondary. Provision of schools on a universal basis is the pre-requisite to ensure the education of all children.
Access is to ensuring that a school becomes accessible to all children within specified distances. It implies an understanding of the educational needs and predicament of the traditionally excluded categories – the SC, ST and other sections of the most disadvantaged groups, the Muslim minority, and girls in general, and children with special needs. Access will also mean to address the needs and requirement of other disadvantaged categories of children such as children affected with migration, urban deprived children
As the aim of the Samagra Shiksha is to “Universalise quality school education, expansion of schooling facilities in the uncovered areas would be the first priority. The Integrated Scheme on School Education envisages ‘education’ in a holistic perspective and as a continuum from Pre-Primary, Primary, Upper Primary, and Secondary to Higher Secondary levels.”
The Scheme would, therefore, will facilitate the transition of children across various levels of school education and will aid in promoting children to complete school education. Another important aspect is that all interventions under the scheme focus on Disadvantaged Groups of Children. Some of the overriding points that will steer the approach of the scheme towards universal access are briefly mentioned below:
- Demand for School Education
- Projected School Age Population (5-18 Age Groups)
- Current Status of School Education and Educational Indicators
Since Samagra Shiksha envisages universalizing of elementary education as well as secondary. It becomes imperative that all out of school children are brought into the ambit of school education. This aspect become particularly important, as one of the major objectives of the Samagra Shiksha is universal access, developing infrastructure with the help of community mobilisation. The subcomponents of this are as follows:
- Access & Special Training : All the out of school children who are bring brought into school are given special training for age appropriate learning achievement
- Civil Works (Infrastructure Development) : In the backdrop of National Education Policy 2020, the Integrated Scheme on School Education (Samagra Shiksha) aims to achieve universal access of children in schools from Pre-Nursery to Higher Secondary an inclusive and equitable manner, focusing on quality of education with improved infrastructure in the schools.
The Scheme will be governed and regulated by the provision of the RTE Act, 2009 for elementary schools. The Schedule to RTE Act lays down the norms and standards for a school and provides that a school with an all weather building should consist of the following:
- At least one class-room for every teacher;
- An office-cum-store-cum-HM room;
- Separate toilets for boys and girls;
- Safe and adequate drinking water facility to all children;
- A kitchen where mid-day meal is cooked in the school;
- Arrangements for securing the school building by boundary wall or green fencing
- Library: There shall be a library in each school providing newspapers, magazines and books on all subjects, including story books.
- Play material, games and sports equipment shall be provided to each class as required.
Preference for various interventions are given to Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs), Left Wing Extremism (LWE) affected districts; Special Focus Districts (SFDs) and the 115 Aspirational Districts.
Support for infrastructure from Pre-Primary to grade 12 is the priority of civil works. In this context, the component is in a process of preparing a comprehensive single plan for access the need of infrastructure for entire school education sector integrating the existing Centrally Sponsored Schemes of SSA, RMSA and TE so that state could able to address the inadequate infrastructure in school education. We are planning in such a manner that all children present in schools and future arrivals (need) may get an attractive as well as hygienic space as per norms. Proposals will be based on the data of UDISE.
- Community Mobilisation & Media
Education is the most important intervention in interventions for human development. It opens the door to choices before humans. The period from birth to adolescence is the most important part of human life. It is a receptive and sensitive time of life. In a way, this stage is a pre-preparation to enter the vast ocean of life. It is that important time in human life where the foundation of the overall development of children is laid.
There are three main characters of school education – children, teachers and communities. Children belong to the community, teachers belong to the community, so its nurturing and protection by the community is necessary. All the schools of the state are connected to the state within one structure, but the community’s cooperation is necessary in its flourishing. Various interventions are being undertaken by the government under the overall education campaign to provide quality education to children in schools, such as increasing student learning outcomes, removing social and gender inequalities, equity and inclusion in school education. Ensuring at every level, providing facilities to schools as per national standard, promoting vocational training etc. obviously, monitoring so many functions is not possible without the cooperation of the community. Therefore, to monitor the school, the School Management Committee / School Education Committee have been validated through section 13-(1) of the Compulsory Education Act 2009.
The huge task of Universalization of Elementary Education cannot be achieved without the active involvement of community. That is why; in Samagra Shiksha great emphasis is laid on Community Mobilization. Bihar Education Project has consistently and consciously included community participation and environment building in its strategy.
Education is undoubtedly an integral part of the process of social transformation. "Bihar State free and compulsory education for children (Amendment) Rules-2013" has been passed. According to the Rule, there will be School Education Committee constituted in each Primary and Middle Schools including Basic Schools.
Gender & Equity
The enactment of the RTE Act, 2009 requires addressing gender and social equity within a framework that is holistic and systemic. It is envisaged to improve quality of education, ensuring equity and inclusion at all levels of school education. The key parameters of the approach are formed around the following perspectives:
- Equity will mean not only equal opportunity, but also creation of conditions in which the disadvantaged sections of the society – children of SC, ST, Muslim minority, landless agricultural workers and children with special needs, transgender children etc. can avail of the opportunity in an inclusive environment free from discrimination.
- Gender will be a critical cross-cutting equity issue and will imply not only making efforts to enable girls to keep pace with boys but to view education in the perspective spelt out in the National Policy on Education. As the issues of gender, equity and quality are interlinked efforts which are aimed at one must also include the other.
III. Access will not be confined to merely ensuring that a school becomes accessible to all children within specified distance but implies an understanding of the educational needs and predicament of the traditionally excluded categories – the SC, ST and other sections of the most disadvantaged groups, the Muslim minority, girls in general, transgender children and children with special needs.
Gender and equity are two aspects which are widely addressed under Samagra Shiksha. Without addressing the issues of gender and equity the purpose of the scheme will be forfeited. Equity is a critical and cross-cutting theme which will guide all interventions for universal access under the scheme. School access demands addressing all exclusionary practices in the school, especially those based on caste, religion, gender and special needs etc. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya is one of the innovative programmes to address gender and equity.
- Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya : The Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) scheme was launched by GOI in July 2004 for setting up residential schools at upper primary level for girls belonging predominantly to the SC, ST, OBC and Minorities communities in difficult areas. The scheme ensures access and quality education to girls from disadvantaged communities.
Initially, it ran a separate scheme but merged with the SSA programme with effect from 1st April 2007. Now it is with Samagra Shiksha.
KGBV can be opened in Educationally Backward Block (EBBs), previously defined on a composite criteria of blocks with rural female literacy rate below the national average (46.13%: Census 2001) and gender gap in literacy higher than the national average (21.59%: Census 2001).
The criteria for eligible blocks was revised with effect from 1st April, 2008 to include the following :
- EBBs with rural female literacy below 30%, and
- Towns having minority concentration (as per the list identified by Ministry of Minority Affairs) with female literacy rate below the national average (56.67% Census 2001)
In 2010-11, opening of KGBV has been extended to all EBBs with rural female literacy below the national average as per census 2001.
Criteria for eligibility of Girls Hostel for class IX-XII girls (now KGBV) were also EB Blocks.
The global education development agenda reflected in the SDG4 of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable Development, adopted by India in 2015 seeks to "ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all" by 2030.
The implementation of previous policies on education has focused largely on issues of access and equity. The amendment of RTE Act (in August 2012) has included CWSN in the definition of Disadvantaged group.
Now the National Education Policy 2020 has been launched. This policy is of view that education system rooted in Indian ethos will contribute directly to transforming India. The Policy modifies the existing school education system 10+2 with the new one i.e. 5+3+3+4 covering ages 3-18 years. A strong base of early childhood care and Education (ECCE) from age 3 is also included, which is aimed at promoting better overall learning, development and well being.
Education is the single greatest tool for achieving social justice and equality. Inclusive and equitable education is also critical to achieving an inclusive and equitable society. While previous education policies have made steady progress towards bridging gender and social category gaps in all levels of school education, large disparities still remain particularly for socio-economically disadvantaged groups and specifically for Divyang children or CWSN (including learning disabilities).
This disparity may be earmarked in secondary level of education system. The NEP 2020 recognizes the importance of creating enabling mechanisms for providing children with special Needs (CWSN or Divyang the same opportunities of obtaining quality education as any other child.
The Samagra Shiksha guidelines, in line with the Persons With Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights & Full Participation) Act, 1995 provides that a child with special needs should be taught in an environment, which is best suited to his/her learning needs. These might include special schools, & AIE or even home based education.
Quality Improvement & Innovations including Assessment, Research & Evaluation
New Education Policy has been launched on 29th July, 2020 with the overall aim to make learning Holistic, Integrated, Inclusive, Enjoyable and Engaging. It has directed for intervention to expand and vitalize equitable quality education. The document emphasizes interventions in early childhood education; foundational literacy and numeracy; rearrangement of curricular and pedagogical structure of school education; and reorganization of teacher education. New Education Policy-2020 also envisage that providing universal access to quality education is the key to India’s continued ascent and leadership on the global stage in terms of economic growth, social justice and equality, scientific advancement, national integration, and cultural preservation. Samagra Shiksha has now been aligned with the recommendation of NEP-2020.
Certain major components that contribute towards quality improvement within schools and classrooms are:
Curriculum and Pedagaogy
Opening of Higher Secondary Schools in all the Gram Panchayats
Mera Doordarshan Mera Vidyalaya
Development of e-library
Web based Learning
Entrepreneurship Skill Program-"Get A Plan" For Secondary Students
STEM for Girls- IBM supported Project
Monitoring of Quality Aspects
Innovation : In the process of quality education innovation is a must. Innovative and integrated approaches must be the taken into consideration to its maximum extent for achieving the class specific, subject specific and stage specific Learning Outcomes(LOs). For innovation these points are of most importance:
- Learning of Science, Mathematics and Technology must be integrated, innovative, joyful and enjoyable.
- Activities and experiments inside and outside the classrooms must be enriched with innovations,
- Use of innovative tools and techniques in integrated teaching-learning processes.
- Teacher training and capacity building on use of technology in pedagogy and their integration.
- Encouraging innovations through Science and Mathematics Fairs, Exhibitions, Olympiads, Clubs and Circles.
- Developing scientific temper, evidence-based hinking, creativity and innovativeness.
Assessment, Research & Evaluation
Assessment & research supports are integral to a programme like the Samagra Shiksha. This is a very important intervention for the quality planning and implementation of Samagra Shiksha. Many of the intervention strategies in Samagra Shiksha are based on assumptions. To validate them it is necessary that they are scientifically examined. Moreover, there is a serious dearth of researches on pedagogical and non-pedagogical issues influencing quality of elementary education. In order to seek answers to numerous pertinent issues emanating from variety of context specific factors it is essential that the Samagra Shiksha should pay special attention to conduct, promote sponsor, and advocate for serious research in the area of school education. Therefore, this component have received due importance in the Samagra Shiksha. It is expected that the research studies and surveys will serve three-fold objectives:
- To provide inputs both in terms of qualitative and quantitative data for plan formulation.
- To assess the processes adopted in implementation of the plan.
- To evaluate the impact or the outcomes of interventions.
Digital Initiatives (Use of Information Technology in Schools)
The last decade has witnessed rapid progress in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as well as wide-spread use of computers in the day-to-day life. The use of computer based education to make learning a more joyful process for children is becoming widely prevalent across the globe.
Realizing the importance of computers in the learning process, computer education has been made an important part of Samagra Shiksha.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become one of the basic building blocks of modern society. Many countries now regard understanding of ICT and mastering the basic ICT skills (Communication, Collaboration, Creativity, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving) as part of the core of education, along with reading, writing and arithmetic.
The Government of India seeks to strengthen the use of ICT in almost every sphere. To promote the use of ICT in school education the Government of India had introduced ICT@ Schools scheme in the year 2004 by merging the scheme of Educational Technology -1972 and Computer Literacy and Studies in Secondary Schools (CLASS)-1984.
The essential provision which is mandatory under RTE for children is termed as RTE entitlement. Under RTE entitlement following provisions are made :
Free Uniform : The RTE Act mandates free and compulsory education for all children in Government schools. Uniforms constitute an expense which poor families are often not able to afford, and thus becomes a barrier for many children to pursue and complete elementary education. The Scheme provides two sets of uniform to all girls, SC, ST children and Below Poverty Line (BPL) children at an average cost of Rs. 700/- per child per annum. State Government has incorporated provision of school uniforms as a child entitlement in their State RTE Rules.
Free Textbook : Supply of free textbooks at the elementary level is covered under RTE entitlements. However, the new scheme also supports the process of revising the syllabus and improving the quality and rigour of textbooks by introducing energised textbooks. Energised Textbooks are those text books which are equipped with QR codes and which will have e-learning content linked to them. The digital content will be mapped to the respective learning outcomes and make the content universally available to the students. Such digital content is intended to give greater scope to enhance the learning levels of the children and ensure better learning. The process requires professional resources to create high quality digital content can be accessed by students and teachers seamlessly. In order to improve this indicator, state has setup a mechanism to ensure its availability for every child within a month of academic calendar and in 2019 – 20 it was a complete successful campaign
Implementation of Section 12 (1) (C) of RTE Act 2009 : As per Section 12(1)(c) of RTE rule, admission of children belonging to disadvantaged and weaker sections in private schools upto at least 25% of their total intake capacity in class-I or below and re-imbursement to private schools against 25% admission are essential.
Pre School Education
Young children deserve an enthusiastic start in life and they need quality early experiences, especially in the early ages so that they grow, learn, develop and flourish fully. Researches also suggest that the quality of early years learning experiences has significant impact on school adjustments and the learning levels of children in later schooling. For achieving the Universalization of Elementary Education, universalization of Early Year Education is a pre-requisite and quality EYE is one of the goals that make-up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. There is need for children to be provided with developmentally appropriate early learning opportunities at preschool and early primary stage in continuum.
The first 6 years of a child's life are known as formative years which are recognized as remarkable time for brain growth and development. Recent neuroscience researches particularly on brain confirm the importance of early years in a child's life. It shows that within the span of the early childhood years, there are certain ‘critical periods’ for development of significant cognitive, linguistic, social and psychomotor competencies, which are known to contribute to later success in life. This stage is also important as a foundation for the inculcation of social values and personal habits. Therefore, it is crucial to invest in these early years through ensuring an enabling environment for every child, which is not only the right of every child but also a way to make sure the sound foundation for life. These can be done by ensuring better provisions for quality early education of young children.
Keeping above in view, state has initiated the component of ECCE-Support at Pre-Primary Level under Samagra Shiksha which comprises various activities.
The aim of introducing Vocational Education at Secondary level and Higher Secondary level is to enhance the employability of youth through demand driven competency based, modular vocational courses and at the same time reduce the dropout rate at the Secondary level. The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education approved by the Cabinet in September, 2011 has been recently revised on 12 February 2014 with a view to align it with the National Skill Qualification Frame work. The revised scheme while introducing “Vocational Education” at the Secondary level also seeks to integrate vocational education with general education and provide horizontal and vertical mobility to the students. It envisages close partnership with the industry in the design, Development, delivery, assessment and certification of skills content.
Sports & Physical Education
Sports & Physical Education plays an important role in making a healthy, skilful and sound mind. A sound and healthy mind is sine duo for healthy education. A Physically educated person is one who has mastered the necessary movement skill to participate in many different forms of physical activities, one who value physical fitness and under- stand that both are related to health and well being. The vision is for all students to be physically educated and have fun while moving. Students who choose activity participate in quality physical education programmes receive a Varity of benefits including the development of:-
- A Varity of skills and abilities related to life time leisure activities.
- Improve understanding importance of maintaining a healthy life style.
- Improved understanding of movement and the human bodies.
- Improved knowledge of rules and strategy of particular games and sports.
- Self confidence and self both as they relate to physical education re-creation programme.
Strengthening of Teacher & Training
The Integrated Scheme for School Education treats education holistically without segmenting from Pre-Primary to Higher Secondary Level and Teacher Education. And since the concerns for quality and pedagogical perspectives of different stages of School Education and Teacher Education are different, the scheme considers those concerns and provisions have been made accordingly. Thus, the integrated scheme also focuses on strengthening and expanding the role of SCERTs and DIETs for strenghthening teachers.
Capable teacher makes a strong nation just as a capable builder erects a strong building as education and training capability. Hence Teacher education is a vital component of Samagra Shiksha.
Programme Management & Project Monitoring
To effectively implement Samgra Shiksha, which has such a large coverage, for effective management of the programme, it is important that the appropriate structures are developed and strengthened. As far as management structure is concerned, the central concern of the programme is to adopt those management practices, that combine specification of clear objectives, decentralization of planning at the district & sub-district level and participation of grass root level structures (VSS/PRIs) in the implementation of the programme. The visual representation of the essential structures envisaged in the programme may be seen under the hyperlink Organizational Chart.
Project Management in Samagra Shiksha facilitates and provides support at State / Division / District / Block / CRC / and School level and involves Samagra Shiksha staff, Government personnel in the field, Learners, Teachers, Parents, PRIs, Community, Voluntary Agencies, Resource Institutions and Willing and Creative Individuals.
At state level following systems/units are in place to monitor the scheme:
Management Information System (MIS)
The Management Information System consists of three sub-components. The three sub-components of Management, Information and System together constitute a holistic view of an effective system. Information refers to the processed data readily available for the end users. The word Management here focuses on the use of information system for managerial decision making and not for mere technological name sake. Although, MIS does not necessarily have to rely on a computational device, any meaningful MIS should exploit the power of computing and communication devices to the maximum available at the moment. Therefore, we would mean Management Information System (MIS) to be the set of computer based systems and procedures, designed to improve the managerial decision making process that involve collection, organization, distribution and storage of information for analysis & control.
The scope of MIS in general are collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data and integration in the planning process. The MIS would primarily assist the agencies implementing Samagra Shiksha by providing information on access, retention and quality related issues;
intervention-wise progress of SSA implementation and
schooling scenario of children in the target group.
Specific objectives of MIS under Samagra Shiksha are to implement major aspects namely Educational Management Information System (EMIS), Project Management Information System (PMIS), Financial Management Information System (FMIS) et centra.
Bihar has its own administrative structure for management of school education. Need-based committed staff, mission mode, sense of urgency, time bound schemes, accountability, constructive and participative involvement, risk taking and decisiveness, concurrent evaluation and regular monitoring, financial prudence, transparency in transaction, cost effectiveness and innovation constitute policy and working strategies of the Project Management in “Samagra Shiksha”.
As a comprehensive human resource management strategy regular and periodic performance appraisal system has been developed to enhance the performance of individual and to identify the grey area for intervention and future capacity building. In this light a comprehensive performance–cum-capacity building management system has been developed by putting in place the activity/programme wise/district wise ranking system on the basis of the selected parameters and prefixed weightage on them. This ranking will go down to Block level in phased manner. So that outcome oriented appraisal and achievement can be ensured.
Finance, Accounts & Audit
For smooth and transparent fund flow, there is a well defined system of maintaining finance and accounts along with auditing system. The procedure for flow of fund from the State to the Implementing Agencies (SIS), GOI share is released to state finance department. On receipt of fund, State Finance deptt. intimate it to education department. Education Department draw the Central Share & State share from treasury & provide it to SIS through NEFT/RTGS. SIS received the all entire released amount of GOI & State Share.
To make finance and accounts smooth, strengthen and transparent following actions are in place :
- A full-fledged double entry accounting system named “Tally” has been procured and implemented across the State after capacity building of the Accounts Personnel. The same software is being used across the State w.e.f. FY: 2014-15 to maintain day-books and books of accounts.
- Procurement process through e–procurement / GeM Portal
- SIS and District Level Office upload all entries i.e. Expenditure, Advances & transfer (EAT) in PFMS web-portal
- Appointment of Auditor for Statutory/ concurrent/VSS Audit /SMDC Audit.